Lead Acid VS Lithium Ion Battery: Key Difference

Two technologies are presently competing: Lead Acid VS Lithium Ion Battery. With the event of renewable energies, battery storage for domestic use is quickly increasing. As lithium-ion batteries area unit currently found everyplace, from your mobile to your motorcar, this text can show the key variations between the two technologies. It will additionally demonstrate however lithium-ion batteries area unit seizing the century-old lead-acid technology.

Difference between Lithium-ion Battery and Lead Acid Battery (Lead Acid VS Lithium Ion Battery)

Which One Has the Simplest Capacity

Here we’ve the most distinction between Lead-Acid and Lithium-Ion(Lead acid VS Lithium Ion Battery) – weight. Lithium is that the lightest metal on earth, one kg of metal contains twenty nine times a lot of atoms than lead. Additionally, the operating voltage of Lithium-Ion is 3.2V vs 2V for lead-acid. Consequently, you’ll store far more energy in 1kg of metal battery than in lead-acid.

The chart below summarizes the energy storage capability of each technology. The theoretical density doesn’t take under consideration the mass of the electrolytes and different elements (battery casing, safety equipment…).

Typically for lithium ion batteries they are at least 95% efficient, whereas lead acid batteries offer efficiencies around 80-85%. This is important as it allows the battery to charge faster and have a more effective battery capacity, which relates to how much energy can be stored by the battery.

Lithium ion chemistries can accept a faster rate of current, charging quicker than batteries made with lead acid. This is critical for time-sensitive applications where vehicles have high utilization and fewer break intervals.

Despite its overall advantages, lithium-ion has its drawbacks. It is fragile and requires a protection circuit to maintain safe operation. Built into each pack, the protection circuit limits the peak voltage of each cell during charge and prevents the cell voltage from dropping too low on discharge.

Two other interesting figures are the battery capacity, also called energy density in Wh/l and the specific power of the battery in W/kg.

Maxworld Data graph

In the end, Lithium-Ion batteries are lighter (up to 6 times for the same capacity) than lead-acid, more compact, and up to two times more powerful.  

Can you Fully Discharge

Maximum Depth of discharge

If you’ve already purchased a lead-acid accumulator, you would possibly have noticed that the manufacturer advises to not discharge the battery below 50% of its full capability to enhance its life length. In lead-acid batteries, over-discharging creates parasite reactions (sulfation) at the electrodes, slowly damaging the system.

Researchers and engineers worked arduous on this matter and introduced the GEL and AGM batteries. each of them provide an improved depth of discharge (DOD) than the standard flooded lead-acid accumulator however area unit still affected if totally discharged.

Conversely, degradations in metal batteries solely begin once the depth of discharge reaches hour, so makers advocate eightieth Defense to enhance their total life length. Recent improvement allows 100 percent Defense while not additional injury to the battery.

Self-Discharge Rate

Both technologies, when stored, can slowly lose their initial capability. The discharge rate is full of the initial charging state of the battery. It’s counseled to totally charge your battery before storing it. For Lead-acid, the self-discharge rate is 3-20% a month, and for Lithium-Ion 0.35-2.5% per month.

Charge/Discharge potency

The charge potency reflects the particular amount of energy effectively hold on within the battery. For instance, once charging a one kWh battery you would possibly use over one kWh, because of internal loss. For lead-acid technologies, you’ll get around ninetieth potency and for metal batteries, 95% to 99%.

Which Is a lot of Durable

Durability is one among the foremost vital factors to contemplate once shopping for a product.

The same applies to batteries, and sadly, this can be clearly not the strength of Lead-Acid batteries. Over the years some enhancements were made: lead-acid batteries became maintenance-free and AGM and GEL technologies were introduced that slightly improve their performance.

With solely two years of excellent service (when discharged at five hundredth of its most capacity) the life length is extraordinarily low, particularly for a century-old technology. If deeply discharged at every cycle (80% or more), your lead-acid accumulator can solely work well for 350 cycles or one year.

On the opposite facet, metal batteries have redoubled their life length over the last five years, and makers are currently giving warranties as high as 10,000 cycles or ten years (70% of initial capacity).

Do They Support fast Charge or Discharge

Fast charging for battery

Due to technical limitations, lead-acid batteries don’t support fast charge. Their charging time varies from half dozen to fifteen hours and follow a three-step method as made public below:

Bulk charge: charging voltage will increase steady to its maximum value and charging current is unbroken at its maximum value. The battery can reach up to 80% of its full capability in just about 6 to 8 hours.

Absorption charge: Charging voltage is unbroken at its maximum value, whereas this slowly decreases till the battery is charged at 90-95%.

Float charge: Charging voltage and current decreases to zero, whereas the battery reaches full charge.

On the opposite hand, lithium-ion batteries are acceptable fast charge. You’ll charge them to eightieth of their full capability in one to two hours (depending on the ability output of your charger). The remaining 20% can take another two to three hours. Therefore, you’ll totally charge a lithium-ion battery in three to five hours. Both kinds of batteries support fast discharge and might give intense pulses of current (hundreds of amps) if needed.

Conclusion:

This is an awesome triumph for lithium-ion batteries over Lead-acid batteries(Lead Acid VS Lithium Ion Battery).

Lithium-ion batteries provide larger capacities, area unit a lot of sturdy, light-weight, efficient, and cheaper to use than lead-acid. Moreover, they’re standard and you’ll build your battery pack reception.

Thanks to the fast development of electrical vehicles, metal battery costs can still drop, creating this technology even a lot of engaging within the years to return.

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