A Complete Guide for Storing Lithium Ion Batteries
Since lithium-ion batteries can catch fire, how should we store them?
Lithium-ion batteries (Li-ion) should generally not be kept in storage for extended periods of time, whether they are fully charged or not. Extensive testing revealed that storing them at a low temperature, but not below 0°C, at 40% to 50% capacity, is the optimal storage technique. The ideal storage range is between 5 and 10 degrees Celsius. It is advised that lithium batteries be recharged once every 12 months because they self-discharge.
The two types of storage that we can distinguish are short-term and long-term.
Short-term storage: Keep the batteries dry, away from corrosive gases, and at a temperature of between -20°C and 35°C; at higher or lower temperatures, the battery will leak or the metal parts may rust.
Long-term storage: In order to keep the battery’s activity and recovery performance, the ambient temperature should ideally be between 10°C and 30°C during long-term storage. Additionally, it is important to execute a charge/discharge cycle every three months.
Charge the battery to between 40% and 50% capacity, and refrigerate in a dry environment. Less charge and cooler temperatures are helpful in preserving the battery’s life, but too little charge cannot be maintained since the battery will self-discharge while in storage, severely reducing the battery’s lifespan as it slowly runs out of power.
Should the battery be taken out of the gadget while it's not in use for a while, some people may wonder?
Yes. A tiny current is also passing through the shutdown device, creating a full discharge that, in the worst situation, would completely destroy the shutdown device along with the battery, harming it over time.
We’ve compiled a list of restrictions on lithium battery storage to assist you to comprehend it better.
- Never charge a battery in a hot or flame-filled environment. Keep the battery away from heat sources when using or storing it (such as a fire or heater). Immediately remove the battery from the open flame if it leaks or gives off an odd scent;
- Stop using the battery as soon as it starts to expand, leak, etc.
- Avoid getting the battery wet or submerged in water.
- A battery should not be heated or thrown into a fire.
- Never attach the battery directly to a power outlet or cigarette lighter in a vehicle.
- Avoid using cables or other metallic items to short the battery’s positive and negative poles. The battery must not be stored or transported alongside necklaces, hairpins, or other metal accessories.
- Do not knock, acupuncture, tread on, alter, or expose the battery the sunlight, and do not put it in a microwave or a high-voltage environment.
- Do not strike, toss, or mechanically shock the battery.
- When charging lithium batteries, use a suitable lithium battery charger; do not use poor quality or other types of battery chargers.
- Do not dismantle the battery in any manner.
- Do not combine the battery with metal items, as the metal objects may contact the positive and negative electrodes of the battery, resulting in a short circuit, battery damage, or even danger.
- Only use with secondary batteries (such as dry batteries) or batteries of different capacities, kinds, and variants.
- If the battery is in use or charging, it should be removed as quickly as possible from the electrical device or charger and utilized.
- To minimize battery damage, pay attention to moisture-proof, moisture-proof, avoid squeezing, impact, and so on throughout the transit process.
- Please do not use or leave the battery in hot automobiles or in high temperatures as this may cause the battery to overheat, catch fire, or fail to function correctly, reducing its service lifespan.
- Store in locations with high static electricity and magnetic fields to avoid damaging the battery safety protection mechanism and causing insecurity.
- If the battery produces an unusual odor, heat, discoloration, deformation, or any other irregularity while in use, storage, or charging, remove it from the device or charger immediately and cease using it.
- To prevent fires and explosions, used batteries should be wrapped in insulating paper.
Checklist for Lithium Battery Storage
Remove the battery from the gadget before storing it.
Charge or drain the battery to 3.8V (use a voltmeter or a charger set to “storage mode” to verify V).
To protect the battery terminal, use insulating materials (such as plastic or electrical tape).
Place the battery in a fire-resistant bag or container.
Storage place for “Lithium-ion battery only”
There is no heat source in the room.
a dry and well-ventilated location
Remove any flammable items (wood, carpet, and gasoline are prohibited, ceramic or cement surfaces are recommended).
An ABC or water fire extinguisher must be handy. Also, be aware of its placement.
Factory Storage Measures
- cell and battery should have separate repositories.
Install eye-catching “No Fireworks” signage in storage areas.
Stacking combustibles and flammable materials are strictly prohibited.
- The temperature in cell or battery warehouses should be kept between 205°C and 30°C, with a maximum temperature of 30°C and relative humidity of 75%.
Maintain a clean, dry, and well-ventilated warehouse, and do not keep any other things.
- In a cell or battery warehouses, smoke and temperature alarm systems should be installed, and the alarm signal should be routed to a location where someone is on duty 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
- External accident exhaust devices should be installed in cell or battery warehouses.
- The incident exhaust should be connected to a smoke and temperature alarm.
- Cells and batteries should be carefully wrapped and not piled too high, and storage facilities should be built with non-combustible materials and anti-static safeguards.
- To circumvent short circuit protection measures, each battery (cell) must have its positive or negative pole position insulated.
- Automatic sprinkler systems should be installed in the battery warehouse.
- The battery should not be stored at full capacity, but rather at 50% capacity.
- Protective plates should be installed on semi-finished batteries.
- Waste batteries should be stored separately after draining.
- Each fire area within a battery warehouse shall not exceed 250 square meters
- Warehouses, where batteries are stored, should be equipped with an adequate number of automatic spherical dry powder fire extinguishers or automatic sprinklers
- In battery warehouses and aging rooms, utilize explosion-proof electrical equipment.
Faulty and waste batteries must be segregated and disposed of in specialized treatment cabinets, and explosion-proof sand buckets are advised for dealing with accident batteries.
Daily Lithium Battery Storage Requirements
- Lithium-ion batteries that must be stored for an extended period of time and not used should be charged to 50%-60%, and they should be recharged every three and six months, respectively.
- Pay close attention to moisture-proof and moisture-proof to avoid squeezing, impact, and other battery damage.
- It is banned to use or keep the battery at hot temperatures (in direct sunlight or in overheated automobiles), since this may cause the battery to overheat, catch fire, or fail to perform, lowering its life.
- It is prohibited to store in areas with high static electricity and magnetic fields, as this would quickly destroy the battery safety protection system and introduce dangerous hidden threats.
- Remove the battery from the device or charger immediately if it emits an odor, fever, discoloration, deformation, or other abnormality while in use, storage, or charging.
Fire extinguishing equipment and supplies required on a daily basis include: dry powder fire extinguishers, sprinklers (water), and fire blankets (for warehouses)
Frequently Asked Questions regarding Lithium Battery Storage
1.What exactly is self-discharge?
According to research, lithium-ion batteries can lose 3 to 5% of their charge every month, and self-discharge is temperature, battery performance, and design dependent. In general, self-discharge rises with increasing temperature.
2. What is the definition of a totally depleted battery?
A totally depleted battery is said to be “squeezed out” when it no longer produces any of this current. The voltage falls to 0 volts in this situation. If this situation is maintained, the battery’s electrodes will chemically react, leaving it partly to fully useless. As a result, the battery’s capacity is substantially diminished and it may not be recharged. As a result, the battery should not be depleted below the type’s ultimate cut-off voltage and should be refilled as soon as feasible. As a result, lithium-ion and lithium-polymer batteries should not be depleted to the point of being entirely useless.
As a general rule, lithium-ion or lithium-polymer battery packs should be charged at 10 to 20% of their remaining capacity. To avoid complete discharge/overcharge and explosion, good lithium-ion rechargeable batteries often have a significant safety and/or monitoring circuitry within the battery pack.
3. What temperature range is the lithium battery suitable for?
Lithium-ion batteries are suitable for usage in temperatures ranging from -20°C to +55°C.
However, charging is generally only possible at temperatures ranging from +0°C to +45°C.
4. What is the battery life?
Lithium-ion batteries have a charging capability of 1,000 times (depending on capacity). These values, however, can only be obtained under ideal conditions. The number of cycles may be lowered depending on how the battery is handled and maintained. The capacity will diminish throughout the course of the service life. When the nominal capacity of a battery is less than 70%, it is said to be worn out.
5.What is the memory effect and/or the sleepy battery effect (when utilizing NiCd technology)?
The battery monitors its usage intensity. Small crystals will develop on the electrodes if the battery is not fully drained before charging, making them less likely to absorb an electrical charge. As a result, if the battery is not entirely drained one at a time, the battery’s functioning time decreases.
A battery inertia effect (lazy battery effect) analogous to the classical memory effect happens in the case of NiMH technology. Batteries made of lithium-ion or lithium-ion polymer may and should be recharged at any time. Because these batteries have no memory effect, they need only be recharged at regular short intervals. Furthermore, complete charging in phases, with or without partial discharge in between, will not do any harm.
Lithium-ion and lithium-ion polymer batteries, on the other hand, should not be entirely drained.
Charge the lithium-ion polymer battery if it has 10% to 20% of its remaining capacity, according to the experiment. It is important to note that detaching and reconnecting a fully charged battery pack to the charging device will not result in a greater charge. This technique will reduce the battery’s performance potential.
Manufacturers who rely on properly storing these strong energy instruments face obstacles and threats, and the correct storage solution may make or break your company. Maxworld Power takes pleasure in offering secure and dependable prefabricated storage structures for lithium batteries. Carefully built lithium battery storage structures provide a practical option for storing batteries for an extended period of time while conserving your products for ease of access and safety.